In summary, the findings of David Mayer and et al. suggest that encouraging internal whistle-blowing really does "take a village". Consistent with both study 1 and study 2, study 3 found that only 46.6% of participants reported unethical behavior internally. Mayer et al. suggest that ethical reporting is enhanced if ethical behavior is also displayed by coworkers. Further, in studies 2 and 3, they found that
this effect is explained by a fear of retaliation. When supervisors and coworkers were deemed ethical, participants were less likely to fear retaliation and internal whistle-blowing increased.
David Mayer et al. "Encouraging employees to report unethical conduct internally: It takes village". January 7, 2013. Study. May 28, 2013. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749597813000150