"The HPI effectively identifies three groups of nations: unsustainable nations (such as Western nations and Arab Gulf states), unhappy nations (predominantly Sub-Saharan Africa), and some that are almost sustainable and happy. This last group is made up of Latin American and Asian countries- there is a lot of variance between them. Examples include Costa Rica and Vietnam (which rank 1st and 2nd in the HPI). Costa Rica generates 99% of its electricity renewably and has set itself the target of being carbon neutral by 2021; its people are amongst the happiest in the world and live longer than the people in the USA. In Vietnam life expectancy is now over 75 years (in comparison to the UK's 80 years). Yet these nations consume about a quarter of the resources that we do in the UK."
Nic Marks, "Diving Into Happiness," Resurgence and Ecologist, Sept/Oct 2012. https://www.exacteditions.com/read/resurgence/september-2012-32475/4/3